Out of the Vault: Soundtracks with Preston Singletary

Making art from glass is time-consuming. It is an undertaking that can unfold over hours, but more often takes place over days, weeks, or even months. A great music playlist can be essential to keeping focused and staying creative. These playlists were the starting point for our exhibition Out of the Vault: Soundtracks. MOG Curator Katie Buckingham sat down with Preston Singletary to learn more about his work in the exhibition and his creative process.

KB: I was hoping we could start off with your take on Killer Whale Medallion, our recent acquisition from the Robert M. Minkoff Foundation Collection.

PS: It was designed from one of the posts in the Clan House piece that is part of the Museum’s collection. I was trying to figure out some small production pieces that would be easy to make and easy to sell. I took a killer whale form and had it carved in the negative (reverse) on a graphite slab, so that I could pour the glass onto that slab and quickly create Killer Whale Medallion.

KB:  That connection to Clan House is really interesting! I think it is important to also talk about the financial aspects of being an artist – Killer Whale Medallion is an example of how artists try to balance earning a living with creating new ideas and big projects.

PS: For sure. Owning a studio definitely takes vision and a labor of love. I started making that series about 15 years ago when I opened my studio. When I got the studio, I thought, well, I need to figure out how to make it pay for itself. So, I developed Killer Whale Medallion and other smaller scale pieces to try to make money.

KB: I’d love to hear about the playlist you shared with us. You’re the only artist in the exhibition who is also a musician, preforming with the Indigenous band Khu.éex’.

PS: Making the playlist was fun. Playing music was my first creative passion. I listen to music all the time. I love musical hybrids of different styles. I love funk, jazz, and rock. I tried to include a little bit of everything. That’s why I called it “Music that Made Me;” the playlist includes songs that shaped me and the way that I came to appreciate music. Talking Heads is especially important because they introduced me to funk. At the time, they were playing with this musician, Bernie Warrell, co-founder of Parliament Funkadelic. I made Bernie’s acquaintance and worked with him for three years. He was a great improviser and conduit for music, working with musicians from all around the world. Collaborating with him was a huge education in terms of what I knew about music and what I could do with it.

KB: Making music is collaborative, not unlike glassblowing.

PS: Yeah, it is. Music is a team sport, a language that people share. Once you understand the musical situation, you can embellish it in so many different ways. And that’s what I like about it.

KB: And where do you look for inspiration when you’re making new artwork?

PS: I am really fascinated with mythology and trying to imagine how new, contemporary mythologies merge with Native culture. I feel like Native art has been placed in an anthropological corral. I know that if my culture had not been invaded and interrupted, it would have continued to evolve creatively. Instead, today, Native art is much more multi-cultural. A lot of my work goes into non-Native households, whereas before my work would have been embraced by and represented in my own community. Instead, the work I make today gets shared with a larger audience, which is an important opportunity.

KB: KB: That’s interesting! How do you take that frame of mind with you when you work on exhibition like the Museum’s traveling exhibition Preston Singletary: Raven and the Box of Daylight?

PS: I feel like my work needs to show these ancient codes and symbols of the land and present my Native culture in a way that brings more awareness to it. If viewers haven’t seen Native art before, then the exhibition is an opportunity to learn and understand it on another level.

KB: When you’re working in your studio, what helps your creative process?

PS: I’m lucky to have my own studio in the South Lake Union neighborhood of Seattle. It has a glassblowing and a sandblasting studio, as well as space to mock-up larger installations. I used to have walls of CDs and albums in my office, but now I’ve imported everything onto my computer. But I have a large library and make sure to place books and art around me to create little zones for all of my creativity. I also have a study collection with Native masks and baskets, and other things for inspiration around my studio.

KB: When you’re working, how do you push through a creative block? What would you tell a student having trouble finding their creative rhythm?

PS: When I’m teaching, I try to encourage people to look at their own personal story. Everybody has a story, and everybody comes from somewhere. A lot of people tell me, “Oh, you’re so fortunate to have this rich Native heritage.” That does not necessarily make it easier – I still had a lot to learn in terms of the history, the stories, and the design system. It wasn’t easy. In fact, it was kind of hard. I think that everybody who wants to be creative comes to a fork in the road, where you choose your influences and follow where they lead. But you have to add to your own story. When you dig deep and find your own creativity, then transform that into a visual form…that is awesome.

KB:  We’re so excited that Raven and the Box of Daylight is currently on view at Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, DC. This project took us several years to realize – so what’s on the horizon for you and your work?

PS: I’m starting to think about how to add a contemporary twist to traditional stories. For the Tlingit people, Raven set the world in order and put things into motion to help mankind in this way. So, what is Raven doing now? Maybe he’s trying to combat climate change or looking for the missing and murdered Indigenous women. Maybe he’s discovered the residential school grave sites. This is a much broader world than just the Tlingit world, and my work can have an element of teaching, an element of raising awareness. The opportunity for storytelling is where my work is heading.

Check out Preston Singletary’s playlist on Spotify, and visit us at Museum of Glass to see more of our collection featured in Out of the Vault: Soundtracks.

About The Artist:
The art of Preston Singletary has become synonymous with the relationship between European glass blowing traditions and Northwest Native art.  His artworks feature themes of transformation, animal spirits, and shamanism through elegant blown glass forms and mystical sand-carved Tlingit designs. 

Singletary’s work is featured in Out of the Vault: Soundtracks, currently on display at Museum of Glass and open through June 18, 2023.

Learn more and view Singletary’s work at https://www.prestonsingletary.com/

  1. Preston Singletary working in his studio. Photo by Mac Holt.
  2. Preston Singletary (American Tlingit, born 1963). Killer Whale Medallion, 2010. Cast glass; 12 5/8 × 9 7/8 × 4 15/16 in. (32.1 × 25.1 × 12.5 cm). Collection of Museum of Glass, Tacoma, Washington, gift of the Robert M. Minkoff Foundation. Photo by Russell Johnson.
  3. Preston Singletary (American Tlingit, born 1963). Clan House (Naa Kahídi), 2008. Kiln-cast and sand-carved glass; water-jet cut, inlaid, and laminated medallion; 90 1/2 × 120 1/2 × 8 in., 600 lb. (229.9 × 306.1 × 20.3 cm, 272.2 kg). Collection of Museum of Glass, Tacoma, Washington, commissioned with funds provided by Leonard and Norma Klorfine Foundation. Photo by Russell Johnson.
  4. Detail of Clan House (Naa Kahídi) post with Killer Whale Medallion (blue). Photo by Russell Johnson
  5. Detail from Preston Singletary: Raven and the Box of Daylight showing the Nass River and the Fisherman of the Night. On view at Museum of Glass October 3, 2019 through September 2, 2019. Photo by Russell Johnson.
  6. Preston Singletary (American Tlingit, born 1963). Indian Curio Shelf, 2012. Mixed media, glass, and found objects; 58 1/2 x 23 1/2 x 24 in. (148.6 x 59.7 x 61 cm). Collection of Preston Singletary. Photo courtesy of the artist.

Out of the Vault: Soundtracks with Ned Cantrell

Making art from glass is time-consuming. It is an undertaking that can unfold over hours, but more often takes place over days, weeks, or even months. A great music playlist can be essential to keeping focused and staying creative. These playlists were the starting point for our exhibition Out of the Vault: Soundtracks. MOG Curator Katie Buckingham sat down with Ned Cantrell to learn more about his work in the exhibition and his creative process.

KB: Could you tell us more about The Emperor’s New Clothes and your 2019 residency at MOG?

NC:  During my residency I reworked some of Hans Christian Andersen’s fairytales, giving them a contemporary spin. The Emperor’s New Clothes depicts an Emperor wearing nothing but his crown and tattooed insignia of oil companies. Underneath him the ground is burning. Often it seems that politicians perpetuate a lie because the alternative would mean losing face and political suicide. In the original fairytale, a child reveals the Emperor’s hypocrisy by shouting “The King has got no clothes on.”  

KB:  Describe your playlist – is it what you listen to while you work, or a list of your favorites?

NC: Music can be a muse. I have occasionally made pieces directly inspired by a song, but more often it is a mood or atmosphere which I find inspirational. My playlist is a bit of a mix. It includes some favorites that have been played on repeat and some tracks which I think perhaps relate to my work in some way.

KB: Where do you make your work?

NC: I am privileged to have my own hot shop together with my wife, Karen Nyholm, in Ebeltoft, Denmark. Ebeltoft is a hub for glassblowing not unlike Tacoma, with six glassblowing workshops, around 20 glassblowers, and a glass museum.

KB: What about your studio space helps your creative process?

NC: Our workshop used to be owned by Finn Lynggaard and Tchai Munch and was the first in Ebeltoft in 1979. The building is a piece of Danish glass history and holds many stories. It reminds me that we are all standing on the shoulders of giants. And is also motivating to be a part of a bigger picture.

KB: Where do you look for inspiration?

NC: I have one theme which is common to almost all of my work, which is a discourse between high culture and low culture. Basically, I take objects from low culture — trash, cartoons, mass-produced plastic products — and reproduce them using virtuoso glass techniques. Sometimes my work may be political or conceptual, but mostly it is aesthetically motivated. I live in a very beautiful part of the world, so it is probably very wrong of me not to be inspired by my surroundings. Most people would, I guess. I am not sure why, but I always seem to be looking for ugliness.

KB: How do you push through a creative block?

NC: Never play to the gallery. If I am blocked, I try to make things only for myself and not think about what anybody else will think of it. I allow myself time to play and create without worrying about the results. I make some embarrassingly bad things sometimes, but this is also the time where I develop most.

KB: How was your creative process impacted by the pandemic? 

NC: The pandemic didn’t affect my work very much. It was easy for us to isolate because our workshop is on our property, and Karen and I usually assist each other anyway. I just crawled back in under my stone.

KB: What’s on the horizon for you and your work?

NC: We are about to light the furnace after a break for the summer. I have too many ideas for what to make next, so I will have to be selective. Certainly, more inflatable pool toys. I am really into them. And probably a new series with dead insects. We have many dead insects on our windowsills already, so it seems like an obvious thing to make. Coming up, I will be teaching at The Glass Factory in Sweden and I have a residency at Nuutajärvi Glassworks in Finland. In 2023, I will be returning to the Pacific Northwest to teach at Pilchuck Glass School together with Karen.

Check out Ned Cantrell’s playlist on Spotify, and visit us at Museum of Glass to see more of our collection featured in Out of the Vault: Soundtracks.

About The Artist:
Ned Cantrell graduated in England in 1997 and has been running his workshop in Denmark together with Karen Nyholm since 2004. Over the years, he has absorbed a range of techniques for blowing and hot-sculpting glass which he excretes in an eclectic and unique mix of styles and disciplines. Ned utilizes symbols of pop culture and consumerism such as trash, tattoos, and science fiction, while exploring the contradiction between the objects’ kitschy spirit and the finesse of craftsmanship. His work has been widely exhibited in Europe, Asia, and the USA.

Cantrell’s work is featured in Out of the Vault: Soundtracks, currently on display at Museum of Glass and open through June 18, 2023.

Learn more and view Cantrell’s work at https://www.nyholmcantrell.dk/?v=dd65ef9a5579

Image credits:

  1. Ned Cantrell, pictured with his wife and collaborator Karen Nyholm. Photo courtesy of the artist.
  2. Ned Cantrell (Danish, born 1975). The Emperor’s New Clothes. Made at the Museum in 2019. Blown and hot-sculpted glass; 25 1/2 × 9 1/2 × 8 1/2 inches. Collection of Museum of Glass, Tacoma, Washington, gift of the artist. Photo by Mark Aimerito.
  3. Ned Cantrell working at Pilchuck Glass School, Stanwood, Washington in 2016. Photo by Stephanie Lifshutz.
  4. Ned Cantrell (Danish, born 1975). Geisha, 2016. Blown and hot-sculpted glass; 27 1/2 inches tall. Courtesy of the artist. Photo by Ned Cantrell.

Out of the Vault: Soundtracks with April Surgent

Making art from glass is time-consuming. It is an undertaking that can unfold over hours, but more often takes place over days, weeks, or even months. A great music playlist can be essential to keeping focused and staying creative. These playlists were the starting point for our exhibition Out of the Vault: Soundtracks. MOG Curator Katie Buckingham sat down with April Surgent to learn more about her work in the exhibition and her creative process.

KB: August 19th is World Photography Day, so let’s talk about But You Won’t Look Back. Is it based on photos you took while traveling?

AS: Yes, while I was in college, I received a scholarship from the Spanish Embassy in Canberra, Australia to travel to Europe. I traveled for four months and took a lot of pictures to bring back as research. Throughout the trip, I was thinking about how place informs people and their environments. But You Won’t Look Back is inspired by a church in Milan, Italy. I was people-watching on the piazza, where all these normal people just passed by the cathedral – it was fascinating how such a grand building just blended into the city.    

KB:  So, I’d love to hear a little bit more about your playlist. Are these songs the ones you listen to while you work?

AS: I was listening to the songs in this playlist on that same trip around Europe. It’s my go-to playlist. When I don’t know what to listen to and I have to get to work, these are the songs that guide the vibe.

KB: Engraving is a very time-intensive process – do you listen to other things while you work

AS: I listen to a lot of books and podcasts. To put it in context, when I am engraving, I don’t chose books that are shorter than 20 hours. I usually work on the same piece for several weeks at a time, so I like to get into a long book. One of my favorite audiobooks is Lolita, narrated by Jeromy Irons. He is such a wonderful orator, it is like listening to play.

KB: How do you keep inspired over such a long period of time?

AS: Coldworking is the perfect thing for me. I’m really slow at things and kind of introverted. Lots of research hours inform my work, so I don’t find the hours of engraving to be a hindrance. In fact, I feel like if I were in the Hot Shop, I might be overwhelmed by how fast I would have to make decisions.

KB: So, what happens when you are stuck on a creative problem?

AS: Whenever I am feeling like I need extra inspiration, I spend time in my garden. Even though living and working at home can be hard, I get a lot of joy from my garden, and I feel like it helps clear my mind. A lot of times when I feel stuck, uninspired, or overwhelmed, I’ll just start something. Even if I feel like I don’t know what the hell I’m doing, I just start to do something. Anything. Even though I don’t necessarily know where it’s going, I think just starting is always key.

KB: You typically do a lot of research before embarking on a piece. How does that research take shape for you?

AS: That has changed a lot since COVID-19, because, over the last decade, I have been traveling a lot. But since the pandemic, I have been doing all my research online and reaching out to people in the field from home. So, doing research like everyone else, I guess.

KB: How’s that going? Do you like it?

AS: I do like it. It feels good, it feels freeing. If I get interested in one tangent or another, I can focus on it, and run down the whole rabbit hole. And I can bring all of my past research together on the table and sift through it. It feels really good to have a library of information to scatter about. I don’t think I will necessarily stop traveling, but this new approach has been fun.

KB: What are you working on next?

AS: I’m really excited about a commission I am completing for Brunnier Museum at Iowa State University. They were interested in my environmental work, and I am working on a piece connected to their research. You can also visit my website or Traver Gallery to see more of my current work.

Check out April Surgent’s playlist on Spotify, and visit us at Museum of Glass to see more of our collection featured in Out of the Vault: Soundtracks.

About The Artist:
Glass artist April Surgent makes work that raises public awareness about climate change and environmental impact. Surgent began studying blown glass, but after studying with Czech master engraver Jiří Harcuba at Pilchuck Glass School, she transitioned to working with engraved glass. In creating her work Surgent draws from her experiences with conservation research and her deep interest in the beauty of the natural world. Inspired by the connectivity of our ecosystems and connection to place, Surgent’s glass works call for thoughtful reflection and positive community impact.

Surgent’s work is featured in Out of the Vault: Soundtracks, currently on display at Museum of Glass and open through June 18, 2023.

Learn more and view Surgent’s work at https://www.aprilsurgent.com/

Image credits:

  1. Photo by Derek Blagg
  2. April Surgent (American, born 1982). But You Won’t Look Back, 2006. Fused and cameo engraved glass; 17 1/4 × 33 1/2 × 2 1/2 in. (43.8 × 85.1 × 6.4 cm). Collection of Museum of Glass, purchase courtesy of Lisa and Dudley Anderson. Photo courtesy of Bullseye Gallery.
  3. Photo courtesy of the artist.
  4. Photo courtesy of the artist.
  5. Photo courtesy of the artist.

Out of the Vault: Soundtracks with RYAN! Feddersen

Making art from glass is time-consuming. It is an undertaking that can unfold over hours, but more often takes place over days, weeks, or even months. A great music playlist can be essential to keeping focused and staying creative. These playlists were the starting point for our exhibition Out of the Vault: Soundtracks. MOG curator Katie Buckingham sat down with RYAN! Feddersen to learn more about her work in the exhibition and creative process.

KB: Let’s start by talking about Disconnected Bison Stack. It was made at the Museum as part of your 2019 Visiting Artist residency.

RF: During the residency, I was making a series of works inspired by Columbia Plateau burden baskets. These baskets are traditionally used for food gathering, but I have been thinking about the metaphorical burdens we carry.  Disconnected Bison Stack talks about two different burdens – the first references the mass slaughter of the bison, an extremely destructive part of colonialism that continues to have ramifications today. The second set of icons relates to a previous project called Disconnected Towers. That project was inspired by the gentrification I witnessed in my neighborhood in West Seattle, where single family houses were torn down to build much more expensive, inaccessible units. Disconnected Bison Stack combines icons and symbols from both projects onto a burden basket.

KB:  I’d love to hear more about the music that you put on your playlist. Do you listen to it while you work?

RF: I listen to a lot of different things while I work, and I wanted to share some artists that I look up to. Buffy Sainte-Marie and John Trudell are icons of contemporary Native music.  Black Belt Eagle Scout and Ya Tseen are from a younger generation. I selected songs that I think are beautiful, musical pieces, but also have important social commentary. The playlist mirrors the importance of social messaging in my own work. I also really wanted to include local artists. I like listening to music, and a lot of my friends are in bands, so it was important to me to represent some local scene as well.

KB: Another aspect of being creative is where you work. I’d love to hear about your studio space.

RF: I like where I work because it feels like a time warp. My studio has low windows and, because the lighting is always the same, I have no idea how long I’ve been working on something. It is really nice to just be consumed by my process and lose track of time without distractions. I also like the ability to work in different places. I might work in my studio, but I often draw in a chair by the window (if my cats let me) or at my kitchen table. Sometimes I like to work in bars, too. Having different spaces can shift your point of view.

KB: That’s really cool. When you’re working on a new series, where do you go for inspiration?

RF: I try to bring in a lot of different references. It is like a funnel – you need to fill yourself up with a lot of ideas, and then what comes out the other side, the processing that happens, is the work that you do as an artist. My work often starts with Plateau storytelling and aesthetics, and combines with contemporary ideas. It is very important to think about the messaging within a piece, and include metaphor, symbolism, and action to reinforce its content.

KB: Do you do anything to help push through a creative block?

RF: Sometimes an idea strikes like a lightning bolt. Other times it takes a process. I noticed myself doing the same things over and over again in my sketchbook, so I made myself a brainstorming template. It has a series of lists that help me think through different lenses. For example, there is a list for content – what am I trying to communicate? And another section for thinking about material opportunities – am I working in glass? Vinyl? Acrylic? And a third list for thinking about how to integrate action and inter-activity. Then I take ideas from each list and start connecting them together.

KB: What are you working on now?

RF: Recently, I’ve been working on Coyote Now projects, which are contemporary adaptations of Coyote’s role as the trickster. I had a residency at Institute of American Indian Arts where I started working on an idea called Coyote and the Monsters Yet to Slay. One of Coyote’s jobs, when two-legged people were going to come and inhabit the world, was to slay monsters that were going to be a threat. I have been thinking about how we have all these societal monsters that still need slaying, like the economy, and about ways that Coyote could symbolically do that work for us.

Check out Ryan! Feddersen’s playlist on Spotify, and visit us at Museum of Glass to see more of our collection featured in Out of the Vault: Soundtracks.

About The Artist:
RYAN! Feddersen specializes in creating compelling site-specific installations and public artworks which invite people to consider their relationships to the environment, technology, society, and culture. She is a member of the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation from the Okanogan and Arrow Lakes bands. Her interactive murals, site-specific installations, and immersive public artworks activate spaces throughout the Pacific Northwest.

Feddersen’s work is featured in Out of the Vault: Soundtracks, currently on display at Museum of Glass and open through June 18, 2023.

Learn more and view Feddersen’s work at: http://ryanfeddersen.com/

Image credits:

  1. Photo courtesy of the artist.
  2. RYAN! Feddersen (Confederated Tribes of Colville, born 1984). Disconnected Bison Stack, Made at the Museum in 2019. Blown glass; 14 3/16 × 10 3/4 in. (36.1 × 27.3 cm). Collection of Museum of Glass, gift of the artist. Photo courtesy of the artist.

Out of the Vault: Soundtracks with D.H. McNabb

Making art from glass is time-consuming. It is an undertaking that can unfold over hours, but more often takes place over days, weeks, or even months. A great music playlist can be essential to keeping focused and staying creative. These playlists were the starting point for our exhibition Out of the Vault: Soundtracks. MOG curator Katie Buckingham sat down with D.H. McNabb to learn more about his work in the exhibition and creative process.

KB: I’d love to hear more about Horizon Study Attempt #27. Is it inspired by a specific sunrise or sunset?

DHM: They’re general – the one in Out of the Vault was inspired by the trip to Tacoma for my residency in 2018. Imagine you’re driving West – that oblong shape of the bubble is the morning sunrise in your rearview mirror. Some of my earliest sunset memories are watching the sun over where I grew up in Tampa Bay.

KB: The paint on the wall is really eye-catching. What inspired that addition?

DHM: I’ve been to a number of collectors’ homes, and they can be so crowded. You’ve got a Lino [Tagliapietra], piled on top of a Nancy [Callan], piled on top of anything. For me, the paint defines the boundary of the space so you can’t creep close to it.

KB: Let’s talk about your playlist. What do you listen to while you work?

DHM: I generally don’t listen to playlists while I work, I listen to albums. The thing with playlists is that you have to sit there and construct them. In the Hot Shop, I don’t want to be distracted. I just need some tempo in the background. Usually, we start with something kind of old school, like Miles Davis. Then something more upbeat, like DJ Shadow, followed by a long concert, like Grateful Dead, Allman Brothers, or Led Zeppelin. Then we finish with something chill, like Bob Marley.

KB: Other than music, what is most essential to your creative process?

DHM: Having a great rapport with who you are working with. For years, I’ve worked with Janusz Poźniak and David Walters. They pretty much taught me how to blow glass, and then the next thing you know you’re assisting them, and then you turn around and they’re assisting you. It’s a great way to learn and to have aesthetic, have conversations with each other. Even though our works are different, you can see the visual ways we riff off each other.

KB: Where do you look for inspiration?

DHM: Well, I just look at a sunset [laughs]. But seriously, pretty much everything I liked when I was ten still holds true to me…nature, astronomy – everything from flora and fauna to the aurora borealis and stars. The only difference is that, through my undergraduate and graduate education, I can better articulate my ideas.

KB: How do you push through a creative block?

DHM: I have always fought against the worry that I won’t be able to come up with an idea. I came up with this term graduate school called “f*ckused” – where you’re so focused on something that you’re f*cked, you can’t get a new angle on it. So, I try not to get too f*ckused.

KB: So, what are you making now?

DHM: I’m continuing to think about sunrises and sunsets and have been imagining new shapes with faded colors. The latest iteration are these smart-aleck participation trophies. You know, like: “Thanks for participating sun!” Or “good job sun, that was a great sunset.” You know, “keep up the good f*cking work,” that sort of thing. I’ve been calling them Horizon Points or Sunset Trophies. Because the sun deserves an attaboy/attagirl too.

Check out D.H. McNabb’s playlist on Spotify, and visit us at Museum of Glass to see more of our collection featured in Out of the Vault: Soundtracks.

About The Artist:
D.H. McNabb’s work utilizes traditional Venetian glassblowing techniques to create mixed media pieces and installations that use glass in new and innovative ways. His artwork showcases a clever look at the world around us, inspired by everything from barware and cocktail glasses, to physical emails and potato chip bags.

McNabb’s work is featured in Out of the Vault: Soundtracks, currently on display at Museum of Glass and open through June 18, 2023.

Learn more and view McNabb’s work at: http://dhmcnabb.com/

Image credits:

  1. Photo by Tadzio © Fondation d’entreprise Hermès
  2. D.H. McNabb (American, born 1980). Horizon Study Attempt #27, Made at the Museum in 2018. Blown glass, paint and plywood; 28 × 36 × 9 in. (71.1 × 91.4 × 22.9 cm). Collection of Museum of Glass, Tacoma, Washington, gift of the artist. Photo courtesy of Museum of Glass.
  3. Sketches of early examples of Horizon Study. Courtesy of the artist.
  4. Viewing the sunrise through the lens of an airplane window, an early reference image for the Horizon Study series. Courtesy of the artist.